This question was answered by Cantor, who showed that the real numbers outnumber the natural numbers. All the real numbers between $0$ and $1$ have a decimal expansion such as $x=0.13212987\dots$. Cantor showed that all numbers of this form

**cannot**be put into one-to-one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. To be able to understand his proof, find a number that differs from $x$ in the first decimal place. Take any number $y$ with $2$ in the first decimal place. Since $2$ is different from $1$, $y$ differs from $x$ in the first decimal place.

To return to Cantor’s proof, suppose that you are able to find a one-to-one correspondence between the natural numbers and all the real numbers in the interval $(0,1)$. Let us denote by $x_1$ the number corresponding to $1$; $x_2$, the number corresponding to $2$, and so on. Now consider a number $y$ (between $0$ and $1$) that is different from $x_1$ in the first place after the decimal; different from $x_2$ in the second place after the decimal; and so on. Clearly, $y$ cannot appear in the list, since it is different from all the $x$’s. Thus we have found a real number between $0$ and $1$ that is not in the above correspondence. This contradiction shows that no such correspondence is possible. In other words, the real numbers are

**uncountable**in number.

Are there any infinite sets that have more elements than $N$ but less elements than the set of real numbers?

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